This Glossary of Sports Nutrition Terminologies is a comprehensive guide put together by the Athletic Insight research team, containing various terms used in the field of sports nutrition. It comprises general sports terms and vocabulary words specific to sports nutrition, with definitions provided for each.
Sports nutrition refers to the practice of studying and providing the body with the right nutrients and energy to support physical activity and athletic performance. Proper nutrition is an essential aspect of an athlete’s training and performance. Understanding these terms and the others that are often used in sports nutrition is crucial.
By comprehending the terminology used, athletes can make informed decisions about nutrition planning to enhance performance and maintain good health and well-being. While enhanced performance, health and well-being is the goal of most athletes, knowledge is what gets them there.
Absorption is the process by which nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and other substances are taken up by the body after digestion. This process occurs mainly in the small intestine, where the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream and transported throughout the body. Absorption is essential for providing the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain normal function.
Foods that are high in fiber can slow the absorption of nutrients and should be consumed in moderation. The ideal amount of nutrients absorbed by the body depends on factors such as age, gender, weight, and overall health.
2. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) is a range of intake for carbohydrates, fats, and proteins expressed as a percentage of total daily energy intake. The AMDR provides guidelines for the proportion of macronutrients that should be consumed in a healthy diet.
The AMDR for carbohydrates is between 45% and 65% of total daily energy intake, for fat it is between 20% and 35%, and for protein it is between 10% and 35%. These ranges are based on scientific evidence and are intended to promote optimal health and prevent chronic diseases.
Acclimatization is the process by which the body adjusts to changes in the environment, such as temperature, altitude, or humidity. This process is important for athletes, climbers, and other individuals who engage in physical activity in extreme environments.
During acclimatization, the body undergoes physiological changes that help it cope with the new conditions. These changes include increased sweating, changes in blood volume, and altered metabolic processes. The length of time needed for acclimatization depends on the individual and the specific environmental conditions.
4. Active Dehydration
Active dehydration is the loss of body fluids due to physical activity, such as exercise or sports. During physical activity, the body produces sweat to help regulate body temperature. If fluids are not replaced during and after activity, dehydration can occur, which can lead to decreased performance, muscle cramps, and heat exhaustion.
To prevent active dehydration, it is important to drink fluids before, during, and after physical activity. Water and sports drinks are good choices to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
5. Active Transport
Active transport is a process by which cells move molecules across a membrane against a concentration gradient, from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This process requires energy in the form of ATP and is used to transport molecules that are too large or too polar to pass through the membrane by simple diffusion. Lastly, active transport is important for the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine and for the transport of ions and other molecules across cell membranes.
6. Acute Illness
Acute illness refers to a sudden onset of symptoms that are typically severe in nature and have a short duration. Examples of acute illnesses include the common cold, flu, and stomach virus. During an acute illness, it is important to consume adequate fluids and nutrients to support the immune system and aid in recovery. In some cases, dietary modifications may be necessary to manage symptoms such as nausea or diarrhea.
7. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary source of energy for cells. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which converts glucose and other nutrients into usable energy. ATP is used for a variety of cellular processes, including muscle contraction, DNA synthesis, and nerve impulse transmission. Adequate intake of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins is necessary to support ATP production and maintain cellular energy levels.
8. Adequate Intake
Adequate intake refers to the recommended daily intake of a nutrient that is considered sufficient to meet the needs of most healthy individuals. Adequate intake levels are established based on scientific evidence and take into account factors such as age, gender, and activity level. Adequate intake levels may vary for different nutrients and may be different for individuals with specific health conditions or special dietary needs.
An adipocyte is a specialized cell that is responsible for storing fat in the body. Adipocytes are found in adipose tissue, which is located throughout the body and serves as a source of energy storage. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Dietary modifications, such as reducing intake of high-calorie foods, can help to reduce adipocyte size and promote healthy weight management.
Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced by adipose tissue and plays a role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Adequate levels of adiponectin are associated with a decreased risk of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and dietary factors such as consumption of foods high in fiber and antioxidants have been shown to increase adiponectin levels.
11. Adipose Tissue
Adipose tissue, commonly referred to as body fat, is a type of connective tissue that is responsible for storing energy in the form of triglycerides. Adipose tissue is found throughout the body and serves as a source of energy during periods of fasting or exercise.
Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Dietary modifications and regular physical activity can help to promote healthy adipose tissue levels and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
12. Adipositas Athletica
Adipositas athletica is a condition characterized by excessive muscle mass and subcutaneous fat. This condition is commonly observed in bodybuilders and other athletes who engage in regular strength training exercises.
Adipositas athletica can be difficult to distinguish from obesity and may be associated with an increased risk of health complications such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Dietary modifications and appropriate exercise programming can help to manage adipositas athletica and promote healthy body composition.
13. Adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped organs located on top of each kidney. These glands are responsible for producing hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol, which play important roles in the body’s stress response and regulation of metabolism. Adequate intake of nutrients such as vitamin C, magnesium, and zinc is necessary for healthy adrenal function.
Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to stress or physical activity. The adrenaline plays a role in the body’s “fight or flight” response, increasing heart rate and blood pressure to prepare the body for action. Adequate intake of nutrients such as vitamin C and B vitamins is necessary for healthy adrenaline production.
15. Aerobic Fitness (cardiovascular fitness)
Aerobic fitness, also known as cardiovascular fitness, refers to the ability of the body to use oxygen efficiently during exercise. Regular aerobic exercise, such as walking, running, or cycling, can help to improve cardiovascular fitness and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. The recommended amount of aerobic exercise for adults is at least 150 minutes per week, spread out over at least three days.
16. Aerobic metabolism
Aerobic metabolism is the process by which the body produces energy through the use of oxygen. During aerobic metabolism, glucose and fatty acids are broken down to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body’s primary source of energy. Aerobic metabolism occurs primarily in the mitochondria of cells and is used during low to moderate intensity exercise. Adequate intake of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins is necessary for healthy aerobic metabolism.
17. Aerobic Power
Aerobic power, also known as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is the maximal amount of oxygen that the body can utilize during exercise. Aerobic power is an important measure of cardiovascular fitness and is influenced by factors such as genetics, age, and training status. Regular aerobic exercise can help to improve aerobic power and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.
18. Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic respiration is the process by which the body produces energy through the use of oxygen. During aerobic respiration, glucose and fatty acids are broken down to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body’s primary source of energy.
Aerobic respiration occurs primarily in the mitochondria of cells and is used during low to moderate intensity exercise. Adequate intake of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins is necessary for healthy aerobic respiration.
19. Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)
Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP): Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) is a method for measuring body composition. During ADP, a person sits in a small chamber and air displacement is used to measure body volume. This information is then used to calculate body density and body fat percentage. ADP is a non-invasive and accurate method for measuring body composition and is often used in research studies and clinical settings.
20. Alanine-glucose Cycle
The alanine-glucose cycle, also known as the glucose-alanine cycle, is a metabolic pathway in which the liver produces glucose from amino acids. During this cycle, muscle tissue produces alanine, which is transported to the liver and converted to glucose. The glucose is then released into the bloodstream and can be used by other tissues in the body for energy.
The alanine-glucose cycle plays an important role in maintaining blood glucose levels during periods of fasting or exercise. Adequate intake of nutrients such as carbohydrates and proteins is necessary for healthy alanine-glucose cycle function.
Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps to regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body. It works by increasing the reabsorption of sodium and water in the kidneys, while promoting the excretion of potassium. Adequate intake of nutrients such as sodium and potassium is necessary for healthy aldosterone function.
Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including pregnancy, menopause, certain medical conditions, and excessive exercise or weight loss. Adequate intake of nutrients such as iron and calcium is important for maintaining healthy menstrual cycles.
23. Amino Acids
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for growth and repair of tissues in the body. There are 20 different amino acids, nine of which are essential and must be obtained through the diet. Adequate intake of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish, and legumes is necessary for healthy amino acid levels in the body.
Anaerobic refers to exercise or metabolism that occurs in the absence of oxygen. During anaerobic exercise, the body relies on stored energy sources such as glycogen to produce ATP. Anaerobic exercise is typically high intensity and short duration, such as sprinting or weightlifting. Adequate intake of nutrients such as carbohydrates and fats is necessary for healthy anaerobic exercise performance.
25. Anti-Inflammatory Foods
Anti-inflammatory foods are those that have been shown to reduce inflammation in the body. Chronic inflammation has been linked to a variety of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Examples of anti-inflammatory foods include fatty fish, nuts, berries, leafy greens, and whole grains. Adequate intake of these foods, as part of a balanced diet, can help to promote overall health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
26. B Vitamins
All B vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins that are essential for many bodily functions, including energy production, cell metabolism, and nervous system function. B vitamins include thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folate, and vitamin B12. Adequate intake of foods such as meat, fish, and whole grains can help to maintain healthy B vitamin levels in the body.
27. Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy the body requires to maintain basic bodily functions while at rest, such as breathing and maintaining body temperature. BMR is affected by several factors, including age, gender, weight, and body composition. Adequate intake of nutrients such as protein and carbohydrates can help to support healthy BMR.
28. Blood-Brain Barrier
The blood-brain barrier is a protective barrier that surrounds the brain and helps to regulate the exchange of substances between the brain and blood. It prevents harmful substances from entering the brain and also helps to maintain a stable environment for brain function. Adequate intake of nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants can help to support healthy blood-brain barrier function.
29. Body Composition
Body composition refers to the proportion of fat, muscle, and other tissues in the body. Maintaining a healthy body composition is important for overall health and can help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Adequate intake of nutrients such as protein and vitamins can help to support healthy body composition.
30. Body Mass Index (BMI)
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. It is commonly used to assess body weight and obesity risk. However, it has limitations and may not be accurate for individuals with high muscle mass. Adequate intake of nutrients such as fiber and protein, along with regular exercise, can help to support healthy BMI and body weight.
Bodybuilding is a sport and fitness activity that involves using resistance exercises to build and develop muscles. It typically involves high-intensity weight training, a high-protein diet, and nutritional supplements. Adequate intake of nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, and vitamins can help to support muscle growth and recovery in bodybuilding.
Caffeine is a natural stimulant found in coffee, tea, and other beverages. It can help to increase alertness, focus, and physical performance. However, excessive caffeine intake can have negative effects such as anxiety, insomnia, and dehydration. Adequate intake of water and other hydrating fluids, along with moderation in caffeine consumption, can help to support healthy caffeine use.
A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. The calorie is commonly used to measure the energy content of food and the energy expenditure of physical activity. Consuming more calories than the body needs can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Adequate intake of nutrients such as protein, fiber, and healthy fats can help to support healthy calorie consumption and weight management.
Carbo-loading, or carbohydrate loading, is a dietary strategy used by endurance athletes to increase the amount of glycogen stored in the muscles. It typically involves consuming a high-carbohydrate diet and reducing physical activity prior to an endurance event. Adequate intake of carbohydrates, along with proper hydration, can help to support carbo-loading and endurance performance.
Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients, along with protein and fat, that provide energy to the body. They are found in foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Adequate intake of carbohydrates is important for maintaining energy levels and supporting physical activity. However, excessive consumption of refined carbohydrates such as sugar and white flour can have negative effects on health.
36. Cardiovascular systems
The cardiovascular system is responsible for the circulation of blood throughout the body, including the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Adequate intake of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and healthy fats can help to support heart health and cardiovascular function.
Casein is a protein found in milk and dairy products. It is a slow-digesting protein that can help to support muscle growth and recovery. Adequate intake of protein, including casein, can help to support physical performance and muscle development.
Catabolism is the process by which the body breaks down complex molecules, such as proteins and carbohydrates, into simpler compounds, releasing energy in the process. It is the opposite of anabolism, which is the process of building complex molecules from simpler ones. Adequate intake of nutrients, including protein and carbohydrates, can help to support catabolism and provide the body with energy.
Chloride is an essential mineral that is important for maintaining fluid balance in the body, supporting digestion, and regulating blood pressure. It is found in foods such as salt, seaweed, and certain vegetables. Adequate intake of chloride, along with other electrolytes such as sodium and potassium, can help to support overall health and wellness.
Collagen is a protein that is found in the skin, bones, and connective tissues of the body. It is important for maintaining the strength and elasticity of these tissues, as well as supporting joint health and skin appearance. Adequate intake of nutrients such as protein, vitamin C, and other antioxidants can help to support collagen production and overall health.
41. Complete and Non-Complete Proteins
Proteins are composed of amino acids, which are essential for building and repairing tissues, supporting immune function, and maintaining overall health. Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids in adequate proportions, while non-complete proteins may lack one or more essential amino acids. Adequate intake of both complete and non-complete proteins is important for overall health and wellness.
Creatine is a natural compound that is found in muscle cells and can help to support physical performance and muscle growth. The creatine is often used as a supplement by athletes and bodybuilders to improve strength and endurance. Adequate intake of nutrients such as protein and carbohydrates, along with creatine supplementation, can help to support physical performance and muscle development.
43. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
DOMS is a common condition that occurs after engaging in physical activity, particularly high-intensity or unfamiliar exercise. It is characterized by muscle pain, stiffness, and weakness that typically peaks 24 to 48 hours after exercise. Adequate rest, hydration, and proper nutrition can help to support recovery and reduce the symptoms of DOMS.
44. Eating disorder
Eating disorders are mental health conditions that are characterized by abnormal eating habits, attitudes, and behaviors. They can have serious physical and psychological consequences, and often require professional treatment. Adequate nutrition, along with therapy and other forms of support, can help to support recovery and overall health.
Electrolytes are minerals that are important for regulating fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle function in the body. They include sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, among others. Adequate intake of electrolytes, along with adequate hydration, can help to support physical performance and overall health.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions in the body, helping to break down complex molecules into smaller, more manageable components. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and cellular signaling. Adequate nutrition, including the consumption of vitamins and minerals, is important for supporting enzyme activity and overall health.
47. Essential Amino Acids
Essential amino acids are those that the body cannot produce on its own and must be obtained through the diet. They play a critical role in building and repairing tissues, supporting immune function, and maintaining overall health. Adequate intake of essential amino acids, along with other nutrients such as carbohydrates and fats, is important for supporting physical performance and overall health.
48. Fat Adapted
Fat adaptation is a process by which the body becomes more efficient at burning fat for energy, rather than relying on carbohydrates. This can occur through dietary changes, such as reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing fat intake, and can help to support weight loss, improved metabolic health, and physical performance.
49. Fat Loss
Fat loss refers to the reduction in body fat that occurs through a calorie deficit, increased physical activity, and other lifestyle changes. Adequate nutrition, including a healthy balance of macronutrients and micronutrients, is important for supporting fat loss and overall health.
50. Fat-free mass
Fat-free mass refers to the weight of the body that is composed of everything except fat, including muscle, bone, organs, and fluids. Adequate nutrition, including the consumption of protein and other nutrients that support muscle growth and maintenance, is important for supporting fat-free mass and overall health.
Fatigue refers to a feeling of exhaustion or lack of energy that can result from physical or mental exertion, poor sleep, or a variety of underlying health conditions. Adequate nutrition, including a balanced intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, is important for supporting energy levels and overall health.
Fats, also known as lipids, are a macronutrient that the body uses for energy, insulation, and various other functions. There are different types of fats, including saturated, unsaturated, and trans fats, and a healthy diet should include a balance of these different types of fats.
Fiber refers to a type of carbohydrate that the body cannot fully digest or absorb, but which is important for maintaining digestive health, supporting a healthy gut microbiome, and reducing the risk of various chronic diseases. Adequate intake of fiber can be achieved through the consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant-based foods.
Fructose is a type of sugar that occurs naturally in fruits, honey, and some vegetables, and is also used as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages. Consuming excessive amounts of fructose, particularly in the form of added sugars, can contribute to weight gain, metabolic dysfunction, and other health problems.
Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. It is found in many types of food, particularly carbohydrates, and is also produced by the liver through a process called gluconeogenesis. Maintaining stable blood glucose levels through a balanced diet and regular physical activity is important for supporting overall health and preventing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
Gluten is a type of protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. For people with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity, consuming gluten can lead to various digestive and other health problems. Some people also choose to follow a gluten-free diet for other reasons, although it is important to ensure adequate intake of all necessary nutrients.
Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate that the body uses as a stored form of energy. It is stored primarily in the liver and muscles, and can be broken down into glucose when needed to provide energy. Consuming adequate carbohydrates and maintaining stable blood glucose levels can help support glycogen stores and overall energy levels.
58. Growth Hormone
Growth hormone is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that is important for growth and development during childhood and adolescence, as well as various metabolic functions throughout life. Adequate nutrition, particularly protein intake, is important for supporting growth hormone production and overall health.
Hormones are chemical messengers produced by various glands and tissues in the body that help regulate various physiological processes, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproductive function. Adequate nutrition, including appropriate intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, is important for supporting hormonal balance and overall health.
Hyperglycemia refers to high blood glucose levels, often associated with diabetes or other metabolic disorders. Maintaining stable blood glucose levels through a balanced diet and regular physical activity is important for preventing hyperglycemia and other metabolic complications.
61. Hypertonic Solution
A hypertonic solution is a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than the solution on the other side of a semi-permeable membrane. In terms of nutrition, consuming a hypertonic beverage or food can help replenish electrolytes and other nutrients lost during exercise or other physical activity.
Hypoglycemia refers to low blood glucose levels, which can lead to various symptoms such as shakiness, weakness, confusion, and even loss of consciousness. Consuming carbohydrates or other sources of glucose can help raise blood glucose levels and alleviate symptoms of hypoglycemia.
63. Hypotonic Solution
A hypotonic solution is a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than the solution on the other side of a semi-permeable membrane. In terms of nutrition, consuming a hypotonic beverage or food can help provide hydration and support electrolyte balance.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood glucose levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells for energy or storage. Adequate nutrition, particularly carbohydrate intake, is important for supporting insulin production and maintaining stable blood glucose levels.
Iron is an essential mineral that plays a role in various physiological processes, including oxygen transport and energy production. Consuming adequate amounts of iron through dietary sources such as meat, seafood, beans, and leafy green vegetables is important for preventing iron deficiency anemia and supporting overall health.
66. Isotonic Solution
An isotonic solution is a solution that has the same concentration of solutes as the solution on the other side of a semi-permeable membrane. In terms of nutrition, consuming an isotonic beverage or food can help provide hydration and support electrolyte balance.
Ketones are produced by the liver when the body breaks down fat for energy in the absence of sufficient glucose, such as during a low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet. Ketones can be used as an alternative source of fuel for the brain and other tissues, and high levels of ketones in the blood can indicate a state of ketosis.
68. Kilocalorie (kcal)
A kilocalorie (kcal), commonly referred to as a calorie, is a unit of energy commonly used in nutrition to describe the energy content of foods and the energy needs of the body. One kilocalorie is equivalent to 4.184 kilojoules.
69. Kilojoule (kJ)
A kilojoule (kJ) is a unit of energy commonly used in nutrition to describe the energy content of foods and the energy needs of the body. One kilojoule is equivalent to 0.239 kilocalories.
Lactate, or lactic acid, is a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism that can accumulate in the muscles during intense exercise or other activities that require rapid energy production. Lactate can contribute to muscle fatigue and soreness, but can also be used as a source of energy by the body during recovery.
71. Lactic acid
Lactic acid, or lactate, is a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism that can accumulate in the muscles during intense exercise or other activities that require rapid energy production. Lactic acid can contribute to muscle fatigue and soreness, but can also be used as a source of energy by the body during recovery.
Lactose is a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Some individuals may have lactose intolerance, which is the inability to digest lactose due to a deficiency of the enzyme lactase.
73. Lean body mass
Lean body mass refers to the total weight of the body minus the weight of all body fat. It includes muscle mass, bone mass, and organ mass, and is an important factor in determining overall body composition.
74. Loading / Cycling Phase
Loading or cycling phase refers to a strategy used in certain nutrition and fitness plans to increase the intake of certain nutrients or supplements for a period of time, followed by a period of reduced or normal intake. This strategy is often used to improve athletic performance or promote specific health outcomes.
Macronutrients are nutrients that are required by the body in large amounts for energy and other vital functions. The three macronutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. They are essential for proper growth, development, and overall health.
Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays an important role in numerous bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and bone health. The mineral know as magnesium is found in many foods, including leafy green vegetables, nuts, and whole grains.
77. Maintenance Phase
The maintenance phase is a period in certain nutrition and fitness plans where the individual maintains their current intake of nutrients or supplements to sustain the desired level of health or performance. It follows a period of loading or cycling, and is often used to prevent loss of progress or negative effects from overuse.
78. Mental Performance
Mental performance refers to an individual’s ability to think, reason, and solve problems effectively. It can be influenced by factors such as diet, physical activity, and sleep, and can impact overall well-being and productivity.
Metabolism refers to the complex biochemical processes that occur in the body to convert food into energy and other vital substances. It includes the processes of digestion, absorption, and utilization of nutrients, as well as the breakdown and elimination of waste products.
Micronutrients are nutrients that are required by the body in small amounts, but are essential for proper growth, development, and overall health. Examples include vitamins and minerals, and they play important roles in various bodily functions such as immune system function, bone health, and energy production.
Minerals are essential nutrients that the body needs in small amounts for various functions such as building strong bones, transmitting nerve impulses, and maintaining fluid balance. Examples of minerals include calcium, iron, and zinc, and they can be found in a variety of foods including dairy products, meat, and vegetables.
Mitochondria are organelles found in cells that are responsible for generating energy through a process called cellular respiration. They play a critical role in various bodily functions such as metabolism, growth, and repair.
83. Muscle Protein Synthesis MPS
Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) refers to the process by which the body synthesizes new muscle protein in response to exercise or other stimuli. It is an important component of muscle growth and repair, and is influenced by factors such as nutrition, exercise, and hormone levels.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit signals between neurons in the brain and nervous system. They play a critical role in various bodily functions such as mood, behavior, and cognitive function, and are influenced by factors such as diet, exercise, and stress.
Nootropics, also known as cognitive enhancers, are substances that are purported to improve cognitive function, such as memory, focus, and creativity. Examples of nootropics include caffeine, omega-3 fatty acids, and various herbal supplements. While some studies suggest that certain nootropics may have benefits for cognitive function, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.
86. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat that are essential for normal growth and development. They play a critical role in brain function, reducing inflammation, and protecting against heart disease.
The three main types of omega-3 fatty acids are EPA, DHA, and ALA. EPA and DHA are found in fatty fish like salmon and tuna, while ALA is found in plant-based sources like flaxseed and walnuts. The ideal intake of omega-3 fatty acids is about 250-500 mg per day.
87. Oxidative Stress
Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) and the body’s ability to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects through antioxidants. This imbalance can damage cells, proteins, and DNA, leading to inflammation, chronic diseases, and aging.
Several factors can contribute to oxidative stress, including environmental toxins, unhealthy diets, smoking, and stress. Antioxidants found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help reduce oxidative stress.
88. Oxygen Utilisation
Oxygen utilization refers to the ability of the body to extract and use oxygen from the air we breathe to produce energy for the body’s metabolic processes. Oxygen is carried by red blood cells and delivered to the muscles and tissues that need it. Aerobic exercise improves oxygen utilization by strengthening the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
89. Performance Enhancing Supplement
Performance-enhancing supplements are substances that athletes may take to improve their athletic performance. These performance-enhancing supplements can include legal substances like caffeine, creatine, and beta-alanine, as well as illegal substances like anabolic steroids and human growth hormone.
Some supplements may improve performance, but they also have risks and side effects, and their safety and effectiveness are not always well-established. Athletes should consult a healthcare professional before taking any performance-enhancing supplements.
90. PH Scale
The pH scale measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance, ranging from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most alkaline), with 7 being neutral. The pH of the body is tightly regulated to maintain optimal health and function. Different body fluids have different pH levels, with blood pH ranging from 7.35 to 7.45.
Diet can affect the body’s pH balance, with foods like fruits and vegetables being alkaline and meat and dairy products being acidic. However, the pH of the diet does not have a significant impact on the body’s pH level.
A placebo is an inactive substance or treatment that is given to a person in place of a drug or other active treatment. Placebos are often used in clinical trials as a control group to compare the effects of a new treatment to the effects of a placebo.
The placebo effect is a phenomenon where a person experiences an improvement in their symptoms or condition after receiving a placebo. This is believed to be due to the person’s belief in the effectiveness of the treatment, rather than the actual chemical or physical effects of the placebo itself.
Potassium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is important for many bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, regulating fluid balance, and maintaining normal blood pressure. Potassium can be found in many foods, including fruits (such as bananas, oranges, and avocados), vegetables (such as spinach, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes), and dairy products. The recommended daily intake of potassium is 2,500-3,000 mg for adults, although individual needs may vary based on factors such as age, sex, and activity level.
A precursor is a substance that is converted into another substance in a metabolic pathway. For example, amino acids are precursors to proteins, and glucose is a precursor to glycogen. In the context of nutrition, a precursor may refer to a nutrient or other substance that is needed for the body to synthesize another nutrient or substance. For example, beta-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A, and tryptophan is a precursor to serotonin.
Proteins are large molecules made up of amino acids that are essential for many bodily functions, including building and repairing tissues, making enzymes and hormones, and maintaining a strong immune system. Proteins can be found in many foods, including meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, legumes, nuts, and seeds. The recommended daily intake of protein varies based on factors such as age, sex, and activity level, but most adults require at least 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day.
Recovery refers to the period of time following exercise or other physical activity during which the body repairs and adapts to the stress placed upon it. Proper recovery is important for preventing injury, avoiding overtraining, and improving performance over time. Recovery strategies may include rest, stretching, massage, nutrition, and other techniques aimed at reducing inflammation and promoting healing.
96. Resistance Training / Strength Training
Resistance training, also known as strength training, is a form of physical exercise that aims to increase muscle strength and endurance by using resistance, such as weights or bodyweight, to work against the force generated by muscles. Resistance training can help to improve bone density, enhance overall physical performance, and promote healthy body composition. It is recommended that resistance training be performed two to three times a week, with a focus on all major muscle groups.
97. Respiratory Exchange Ratio
Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) is the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed during respiration. It is used to determine the type of fuel (carbohydrate or fat) that is predominantly being used for energy production in the body during physical activity.
The RER can be calculated by measuring the volume of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced by the body during exercise. A RER of 0.7 indicates that fat is the primary fuel source, while a RER of 1.0 indicates that carbohydrates are the primary fuel source.
98. Respiratory System
The respiratory system is responsible for bringing oxygen into the body and removing carbon dioxide. It consists of the lungs, airways, and muscles that facilitate breathing. The lungs are the primary organ of the respiratory system, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is removed.
The respiratory system is also responsible for regulating the body’s pH balance and maintaining homeostasis. Regular physical activity can help to improve lung function and overall respiratory health.
99. Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the amount of energy (in calories) that the body uses to perform basic functions while at rest, such as breathing and circulation. RMR can be influenced by factors such as body composition, age, sex, and genetics. It is typically measured by indirect calorimetry, which calculates the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced by the body. Knowing one’s RMR can be helpful for determining daily calorie needs and weight management goals.
Sodium is an essential mineral that is important for maintaining proper fluid balance and nerve function in the body. It is commonly found in table salt, processed foods, and some natural foods such as milk and vegetables.
The recommended daily intake of sodium for adults is 2,300 milligrams or less, although some individuals may need to consume less for optimal health. High levels of sodium intake have been linked to an increased risk of high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to consume sodium in moderation.
101. Sports Performance
Sports performance refers to an individual’s ability to perform a specific athletic activity. It can be influenced by factors such as genetics, training, nutrition, and psychological factors. Athletes aim to enhance their sports performance through various means, including proper nutrition, training, adequate rest and recovery, and the use of performance-enhancing supplements.
Nutritional strategies that can enhance sports performance include consuming adequate macronutrients and micronutrients, proper hydration, timing of meals and snacks, and the use of ergogenic aids, such as caffeine and creatine.
Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances. Stress can be caused by various factors, including physical, psychological, and environmental stressors. Stress can negatively impact overall health and well-being, including affecting the immune system, digestive system, and mental health.
Proper nutrition can help reduce the negative effects of stress by providing essential nutrients that support overall health, including antioxidants, B vitamins, magnesium, and omega-3 fatty acids. Additionally, stress management techniques such as exercise, meditation, and breathing techniques can help reduce stress levels.
103. Sugar Substitute
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste without the added calories or negative health effects of sugar. Sugar substitutes are often used as a replacement for sugar in food and beverage products, especially for individuals with diabetes or those looking to reduce their calorie intake. Common sugar substitutes include aspartame, stevia, sucralose, and erythritol. While sugar substitutes are generally considered safe, some individuals may experience adverse effects such as digestive upset or headaches.
104. Trans Fat
Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat that are commonly found in processed foods, fried foods, and baked goods. Trans fats can increase the risk of heart disease by raising levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol and decreasing levels of HDL (good) cholesterol. In many countries, trans fats have been banned or limited in food products due to their negative health effects. Individuals can reduce their intake of trans fats by choosing whole foods over processed foods, reading food labels, and avoiding foods with hydrogenated oils.
105. Whey Protein
Whey protein is a high-quality protein derived from milk. It is a complete protein, meaning it contains all essential amino acids necessary for muscle growth and repair.
Whey protein is commonly used as a supplement by athletes and individuals looking to increase their protein intake. Whey is easily digested and absorbed by the body, making it an ideal source of protein for post-workout recovery. Whey protein is available in various forms, including powders, bars, and ready-to-drink shakes.
Zinc is a mineral that is essential for numerous physiological functions in the body, including immune function, wound healing, and protein synthesis. Zinc is found in a variety of foods, including meat, shellfish, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
Adequate intake of zinc is important for overall health and well-being, as deficiency can lead to impaired immune function, delayed wound healing, and growth retardation. The recommended daily intake of zinc varies by age and gender, with adult men requiring slightly more than adult women.
Who uses the Sports Nutrition Terminologies?
Sports nutrition terminologies are commonly used by athletes, coaches, trainers, nutritionists, and sports scientists. These terms are essential in providing a clear understanding of the principles of sports nutrition, including the optimal nutrient timing, quantity, and quality needed to support an athlete’s performance and health.
Athletes and sports enthusiasts use sports nutrition terminologies to help them understand the relationship between proper nutrition and optimal performance. Nutritionists and trainers also use these terms to develop individualized nutrition plans for athletes to help them meet their performance and health goals. Overall, the use of sports nutrition terminologies plays a crucial role in promoting the overall health and performance of athletes.
How do people use Sports Nutrition Terminologies?
People use sports nutrition terminologies to understand the principles of sports nutrition and develop individualized nutrition plans that align with their performance and health goals.
- Athletes use these terminologies to identify the nutrients that are necessary for optimal performance and recovery.
- Trainers and nutritionists use them to develop specific dietary plans that are tailored to an athlete’s specific needs, including macronutrient and micronutrient requirements.
- Coaches use sports nutrition terminologies to help athletes understand the importance of proper nutrition in achieving their performance goals.
Overall, the use of sports nutrition terminologies provides a common language and framework for athletes, coaches, trainers, and nutritionists to discuss and develop optimal nutrition plans that are specific to an athlete’s needs. This, in turn, can lead to improved athletic performance, enhanced recovery, and better overall health.
Why is knowledge of Sports Nutrition Terminologies important?
Knowledge of sports nutrition terminologies is important because it helps athletes, coaches, trainers, and nutritionists understand the principles of sports nutrition and develop individualized nutrition plans that align with their performance and health goals. By using common language and framework, athletes can make informed decisions about their dietary intake, leading to improved overall health and performance.
Understanding these terminologies can promote more informed decision-making regarding the nutritional content of foods and supplements. In summary, knowledge of sports nutrition terminologies is crucial for athletes to optimize their performance, enhance their recovery, and improve their overall health.
Can these Sports Nutrition Terms also apply to different Types of Diets?
Yes, many of the sports nutrition terminologies can apply to different types of diets. For example, macronutrient ratios, micronutrients, nutrient timing, and hydration are relevant to both athletic performance and other types of diets. While some sports nutrition terminologies may be more specific to athletic performance, the principles can be used to develop individualized nutrition plans for individuals with various health and fitness goals.
What are the commonly used Terms of Sports Nutrition?
There are many commonly used terms in sports nutrition. While there are too many to list, understanding as many of these terms can help athletes and their support teams make informed decisions about nutrition planning to optimize performance and maintain overall health and wellness.
What are examples of Sports Nutrition Concepts?
There are many sports nutrition concepts that are important for athletes to understand. Below are some of these concepts to understand if you want to fully understand sports nutrition.
- Macronutrient ratios: The ratios of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in an athlete’s diet can have a significant impact on their performance and recovery.
- Micronutrients: Vitamins and minerals are essential for overall health and wellness, and ensuring adequate intake is critical for athletes.
- Nutrient timing: The timing of nutrient intake around training and competition can impact energy levels, performance, and recovery.
- Hydration: Proper hydration is essential for maintaining optimal performance and preventing dehydration.
- Supplements: Various supplements, such as creatine or caffeine, can enhance performance in certain situations, but should be used judiciously and under the guidance of a qualified professional.
- Body composition: An athlete’s body composition, particularly their muscle mass and body fat percentage, can impact their performance and should be carefully managed through proper nutrition.
These are just a few examples of the sports nutrition concepts that are important for athletes to understand to optimize their performance, enhance their recovery, and maintain their overall health and well-being.
What is the meaning of Sports Nutrition?
Sports nutrition is the study and practice of providing the body with the appropriate nutrients and energy to support physical activity and athletic performance. It involves understanding how the body uses macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) for energy, recovery, and repair, as well as how to strategically time nutrient intake around training and competition to optimize performance.
Sports nutrition also includes knowledge of hydration and supplementation to help athletes maintain optimal health and performance. The goal of sports nutrition is to help athletes achieve their performance goals while maintaining overall health and wellness.
What is the main role of Sports Nutrition to Athletes?
The main role of sports nutrition for athletes is to optimize performance, enhance recovery, and maintain overall health and wellness. Proper nutrition can help athletes improve their energy levels, endurance, strength, and power, as well as reduce the risk of injury and illness. By understanding how to strategically time meals and snacks, athletes can provide their bodies with the right nutrients at the right times to support their training and competition goals.
Sports nutrition also plays a role in body composition management, as athletes may need to gain or lose weight and adjust their body fat percentage to optimize their performance. Additionally, hydration and supplementation strategies can help athletes maintain optimal health and performance throughout their training and competition season. Ultimately, the goal of sports nutrition is to help athletes achieve their performance goals while maintaining optimal health and wellness.
Is Sports Nutrition only for Competitive Athletes?
No, sports nutrition is not only for competitive athletes. While competitive athletes may have specific performance goals and nutritional needs, the principles of sports nutrition can benefit individuals of all levels of physical activity, including recreational athletes and those who exercise for general health and wellness. Proper nutrition can help individuals improve their energy levels, endurance, strength, and body composition, as well as reduce the risk of injury and illness.
By understanding how to fuel the body with the right nutrients at the right times, individuals can optimize their physical activity and maintain overall health and wellness. Therefore, sports nutrition is important for anyone who engages in physical activity and wants to optimize their performance and overall health.