Creatine: What is it, Importance, Purpose, Uses, and Benefits

Creatine stands as one of the most researched and popular supplements in the sports and fitness world. An organic compound found naturally in certain foods and also produced by the human body, it’s mainly stored in the muscles and utilized for energy during short bursts of intense physical activity.

From athletes to bodybuilders, many seek creatine for its potential benefits in improving performance and muscle growth. Like any supplement, however, it comes with its set of considerations and questions, including its purpose, correct usage, benefits, and even possible side effects.

What is Creatine?

Creatine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body, predominantly found in muscles. It serves as a quick energy reserve for cells, especially during short and intense physical exertions. While the human body produces some creatine, it’s also ingested through various foods and supplements.

What is Creatine
What is Creatine?

Many studies have explored creatine’s efficacy, and it’s often spotlighted for its ability to enhance sports performance, especially in activities requiring quick bursts of energy. This molecule achieves this by helping regenerate a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is an immediate energy source for muscle contractions.

Is Creatine a Protein?

No, creatine is not a protein. While both proteins and creatine play vital roles in muscle function and growth, they operate differently at the molecular level. Proteins are made up of amino acids and are crucial for building and repairing tissues, among other functions.

Creatine, on the other hand, is a combination of three amino acids: arginine, glycine, and methionine. Its primary role is to provide energy to muscles and other body tissues, especially during short-duration, high-intensity activities. Thus, it doesn’t have the same structural function as proteins.

What is the importance of Creatine?

Creatine’s importance primarily lies in its ability to rapidly produce energy, helping improve performance and muscle growth. It’s this trait that makes creatine supplements particularly sought after by those in high-intensity sports or activities. When the body requires quick energy bursts, it taps into the ATP. Creatine assists in replenishing ATP, thereby providing a swift energy reservoir.

Creatine also draws water into muscle cells, increasing protein synthesis. This process potentially aids muscle growth. Besides these athletic benefits, some research also suggests creatine’s potential role in supporting brain health, although these studies are still in their early stages.

What is the purpose of taking Creatine?

The primary purpose of taking creatine supplements revolves around enhancing physical performance and aiding muscle growth. As creatine helps regenerate ATP, it allows athletes and fitness enthusiasts to push harder during their workouts, leading to improved performance in high-intensity, short-duration activities.

Another significant “what does creatine do” pointer is its role in muscle hypertrophy. When creatine is consumed, it pulls water into the muscle cell. This increased cell hydration can lead to a rise in protein synthesis, paving the way for muscle growth. Some studies even hint at creatine’s potential in boosting recovery post-exercise, reducing exercise-induced damage and inflammation.

Is Creatine effective for weight loss?

No, creatine is not primarily known for promoting weight loss. Its primary function is to provide energy for short, explosive movements and potentially help in muscle growth.

However, there’s a nuance. Some individuals notice a weight increase after starting creatine supplements, mainly due to water retention in the muscles. This weight gain is not fat but water. If one’s goal is weight loss, it’s essential to consider this potential increase in water weight when evaluating progress.

Does Creatine strengthen muscle?

Yes, creatine can aid in strengthening muscles. Its supplementation can lead to an increase in the water content of muscles, making them look larger. There’s more than just the visual aspect, however. Creatine also enhances the body’s ability to produce energy rapidly. With more energy, workouts can potentially be more intensive, leading to muscle strength and growth over time.

Creatine can also boost the levels of certain proteins that contribute to muscle growth. Coupled with resistance training, it can lead to increased muscle mass and strength compared to just training alone.

How to use Creatine?

Using creatine properly is essential to harness its benefits fully. Generally, the most common way to start with creatine supplementation involves a “loading phase,” where one might take 20 grams daily, spread out in 4 equal doses for about 5-7 days. This method is believed to saturate the muscles quickly. After this phase, a “maintenance phase” follows, where a lower daily dose of 3-5 grams is recommended to maintain elevated muscle stores.

  1. Loading Phase: Take 20 grams of creatine daily, spread out in 4 equal doses for about 5-7 days.
  2. Maintenance Phase: Continue to take a lower daily dose of 3-5 grams to maintain elevated muscle stores.

Alternatively, some people skip the loading phase and just stick with the daily recommended 3-5 grams. While this might take longer for muscles to become saturated, it’s still effective and what many health experts recommend to see how your body reacts.

Who should use Creatine?

Creatine can benefit many types of individuals, especially those involved in high-intensity, short-duration activities like weight lifting, sprinting, or jumping. Its ability to replenish ATP quickly makes it a favorite among athletes and fitness enthusiasts aiming for improved performance and muscle growth. Apart from athletes, older adults might also consider creatine to help counteract age-related muscle loss.

  • Athletes performing high-intensity, short duration activities (weight lifting, sprinting, jumping)
  • Older Adults battling muscle loss

That said, not everyone might observe significant benefits. For instance, people who consume a diet rich in red meat (a natural creatine source) may already have saturated muscle creatine stores. Also, some individuals, due to genetic factors, might not respond optimally to creatine. It’s always prudent to assess individual needs and, if in doubt, seek expert guidance.

How does Creatine use improve Sports Performance?

Creatine has carved a niche in the sports domain primarily because of its performance-enhancing attributes. When athletes engage in intense activities, their muscles require immediate energy, which is derived from ATP. Creatine, present in muscles as phosphocreatine, assists in quickly replenishing ATP, providing a short, rapid burst of energy.

This boost is particularly beneficial in sports demanding quick energy spurts like sprinting, weightlifting, or high jumps. By enhancing the ATP regeneration rate, creatine allows athletes to perform at peak levels for extended periods. This can translate to more repetitions during weight training or faster sprint times, ultimately leading to improved overall sports performance on and off of the field.

How much Creatine to use a day?

After the initial “loading phase,” where individuals might consume around 20 grams of creatine daily for 5-7 days, the typical daily dose ranges between 3-5 grams. This amount is often sufficient to maintain elevated muscle creatine stores. Consuming more than this might not provide additional benefits as the muscles can only store a limited amount of creatine.

It’s worth noting that individual needs can vary. Factors like muscle mass, exercise intensity, and frequency can influence the optimal dose. The foods your consume may also impact the amount of creatine in your body, but the 3-5 grams range is a general guideline.

What happens if a person has taken Creatine too much?

Excessive intake of creatine over the recommended doses can lead to some unwanted outcomes. While creatine is generally considered safe when consumed within suggested limits, going beyond can cause digestive issues such as stomach cramps, nausea, and diarrhea. Overconsumption might also lead to water retention, causing a temporary weight gain because creatine draws water into the muscle cells.

In rare cases, high doses could potentially strain the kidneys or liver. While concrete evidence linking reasonable creatine consumption to kidney or liver damage is sparse, it’s always wise to adhere to recommended guidelines and regularly check with a medical professional, especially if one has existing kidney or liver concerns.

Who should not take Creatine?

While many people can benefit from creatine, it isn’t suitable for everyone. Individuals with pre-existing kidney or liver conditions should be cautious, as there’s a potential (though not conclusively proven) risk of added strain on these organs. People with a history of kidney stones might also want to steer clear since creatine can increase the amount of creatinine, a waste product processed by the kidneys.

Anyone taking medications that affect liver or kidney function should consult with their doctor before starting creatine. Pregnant or breastfeeding women, due to the lack of sufficient studies on this demographic, should also avoid supplementation as a precautionary measure. It’s paramount to ensure that creatine aligns with one’s unique health circumstances.

  • People with kidney or liver conditions
  • People with a history of kidney stones
  • Individuals taking medications that affect the liver or kidney functions
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women

How much Creatine is safe for the kidneys?

The kidneys play a vital role in excreting the by-product of creatine, known as creatinine. Most research suggests that consuming creatine in recommended doses, typically 3-5 grams daily post the loading phase, does not adversely impact kidney function in healthy individuals. This conclusion comes from multiple studies that observed no significant change in kidney-related markers after prolonged creatine use.

While concerns about creatine kidney damage exist, they are often based on anecdotal evidence or misinterpretation of creatinine levels. Still, anyone with pre-existing kidney conditions or concerns should be especially cautious and consult a healthcare professional before starting supplementation. Regular monitoring can provide peace of mind and ensure kidney health remains uncompromised.

What are the sources of Creatine?

Creatine isn’t just limited to supplement shelves; it’s also naturally present in various foods. While supplementation provides a concentrated form, many individuals also obtain a portion of their daily creatine from dietary sources. Recognizing these sources can be beneficial for those looking to boost or maintain their creatine intake without relying solely on supplements.

  1. Seafood
  2. Creatine Supplements
  3. Red Meat
What are the sources of Creatine
What are the sources of Creatine?

1. Seafood

Seafood, especially fish like herring, salmon, and tuna, are commendable sources of creatine. These water inhabitants are not only packed with omega-3 fatty acids but also provide a decent amount of creatine. For example, consuming 3 ounces of salmon might give around 1 to 2 grams of creatine. Thus, incorporating seafood into one’s diet can be an effective way to obtain this compound naturally.

Seafood is also a treasure trove of other essential nutrients. So, not only does one benefit from the creatine content, but they also harness the advantages of other vital compounds present in these marine delights. But always keep in mind, while seafood is a valuable source, the actual creatine content can vary based on the type and preparation method.

2. Creatine Supplements

Creatine supplements are the go-to for many who want a guaranteed and concentrated dose of this compound. Available in various forms, from powders to pills, these supplements are designed for those who might not get enough creatine from their diet or need an extra boost for their athletic endeavors. Most creatine supplements offer a dose of around 5 grams per serving, making it a straightforward way to reach the recommended daily intake.

One should note that while creatine supplements are widely used and generally considered safe, it’s always a good idea to choose high-quality products. Second, always read the label for any additives or other ingredients that might be present. A quick chat with a healthcare professional can also provide personalized advice on the best supplementation approach.

3. Red Meat

Red meat, like beef, is another dietary heavyweight when it comes to creatine content. A steak on your plate not only offers protein and essential amino acids but also brings with it a dose of natural creatine. Typically, a 3-ounce serving of beef might provide around 2 grams of creatine. So, for those who enjoy a good barbecue or steak dinner, know that you’re also fueling your muscles with creatine.

While red meat is a commendable source of creatine, it’s also essential to consume it in moderation. Some red meats can be high in saturated fats, and excessive intake might not align with everyone’s dietary or health goals. So, enjoy your steak, but also keep an eye on the overall picture of your diet and health.

Does the body produce Creatine?

Yes, the human body is quite adept and produces creatine naturally. This synthesis primarily occurs in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, play a central role in this process. Arginine, glycine, and methionine, in particular, collaborate to form creatine.

On average, a healthy body might produce around 1 to 2 grams of creatine per day. This internal production, combined with dietary intake, usually suffices to meet the body’s daily creatine needs, especially for those not engaged in intense physical activities. But for athletes or those seeking additional performance or muscle gains, supplemental creatine can be beneficial.

Is Creatine natural?

Yes, creatine is a natural compound found in the human body and in several food sources like red meat and fish. It’s a combination of three amino acids – arginine, glycine, and methionine. As previously mentioned, the body can produce creatine, primarily in the liver, but also in the kidneys and pancreas.

So, while creatine supplements might seem like a modern invention, the compound itself has been a part of the human diet and physiology for ages. The supplements are merely a concentrated form, designed to provide a quick and convenient dose to those who need it.

What are the different Types of Creatine?

There are various types of creatine available, each with its unique properties and benefits. While all forms serve the primary purpose of supplying the body with creatine, they differ in terms of absorption rates, solubility, and effectiveness. Let’s shed light on some of the most prevalent types.

  1. Creatine Monohydrate
  2. Micronized Creatine
  3. Creatine Hydrochloride
  4. Creatine Ethyl Ester
  5. Creatine Phosphate
  6. Kre-Alkalyn
  7. Liquid Creatine
  8. Buffered Creatine
  9. Creatine Anhydrous
  10. Creatine Magnesium Chelate
What are the different Types of Creatine
What are the different Types of Creatine?

1. Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine Monohydrate is perhaps the most researched and well-known form. It’s a combination of creatine and a molecule of water. Due to its abundant research backing, many consider it the gold standard. Typically found in powder form, it is known for its solubility and effectiveness in increasing muscle creatine levels.

Pros of creatine monohydrate include its vast research support and affordability. On the downside, some individuals might experience stomach discomfort when consuming it, especially in larger doses. It’s always advised to start with a smaller dose and gradually increase, monitoring how one’s body reacts.

2. Micronized Creatine

Micronized Creatine is essentially creatine monohydrate, but the particles have been divided or “micronized”. This process enhances its solubility in water and might lead to better absorption in the body. So, while its core benefits remain similar to creatine monohydrate, the micronization might make it easier on the stomach for some.

The significant advantage of micronized creatine is its improved mixability and potentially enhanced absorption. The cons, though limited, are that it might be slightly pricier than regular creatine monohydrate. As with any supplement, it’s essential to see how your body reacts and determine which form is the most suitable.

3. Creatine Hydrochloride

Creatine Hydrochloride (HCL) is formed by binding a molecule of creatine to hydrochloric acid. This form is touted for its improved solubility, meaning it dissolves more easily in water. Because of this, the body might absorb it more effectively, potentially requiring a smaller dose than other forms.

Among the advantages, Creatine HCL might be gentler on the stomach and require a lower dose due to its efficient absorption. However, it’s often more expensive than creatine monohydrate. It’s worth noting that while promising, there’s currently less research on Creatine HCL compared to Creatine Monohydrate.

4. Creatine Ethyl Ester

Creatine Ethyl Ester is a form where an ester compound is added to creatine. The ester addition is believed to enhance the creatine’s ability to pass through cell walls, potentially boosting its effectiveness. It’s often marketed as a superior option with better absorption and less water retention.

The upside of Creatine Ethyl Ester is its potential for improved cell penetration. On the flip side, some studies suggest that it might not be as effective as other forms, like creatine monohydrate, in raising muscle creatine levels. It’s also generally pricier than some other varieties.

5. Creatine Phosphate

Creatine Phosphate, sometimes known as phosphocreatine, is creatine bound to a phosphate molecule. In the body, creatine naturally converts to phosphocreatine, which plays a crucial role in the production of ATP, the primary energy molecule. By taking it directly in this form, the idea is to skip a step and directly provide the body with energy-boosting phosphocreatine.

The benefit of Creatine Phosphate is its potential to quickly replenish ATP levels, especially during short bursts of high-intensity activities. A limitation is that there’s less research backing its superiority over creatine monohydrate. Additionally, it’s often more expensive than its monohydrate counterpart.

6. Kre-Alkalyn

Kre-Alkalyn is a patented form of creatine that has been buffered to ensure that its pH level is more alkaline. This modification is believed to help it remain more stable in the stomach, which might enhance its absorption and reduce the possibility of conversion to creatinine, a less effective byproduct of creatine.

Key advantages of Kre-Alkalyn include potentially better absorption and reduced chances of stomach discomfort. Yet, one of its downsides is the premium price tag, often higher than traditional creatine monohydrate. Some critics also point out that the benefits might not justify the increased cost.

7. Liquid Creatine

Liquid Creatine refers to creatine that’s been dissolved in a solution, typically ready for consumption. The allure is convenience; you can take it without mixing or stirring. While the idea sounds appealing, there are concerns about the stability of creatine in liquid form over extended periods.

Among the benefits, liquid creatine offers convenience and might be easier for some to consume. On the downside, there’s skepticism about its long-term stability. Some argue that creatine might break down into creatinine over time in liquid form, potentially reducing its effectiveness. Due to these concerns, it’s recommended to consume the product relatively quickly after purchasing.

8. Buffered Creatine

Buffered Creatine is similar to Kre-Alkalyn in that it’s been modified to have a more alkaline pH. The intention behind this is to increase its stability in the stomach, potentially leading to better absorption and less conversion to creatinine. Buffered Creatine is often marketed as a superior alternative to traditional creatine monohydrate.

Its primary advantage lies in its potential for better stability and absorption. However, some argue that the benefits are not significant enough to justify the higher price point. It’s worth noting that while buffered creatine sounds promising, more research is needed to confirm its superiority over other forms.

9. Creatine Anhydrous

Creatine Anhydrous is creatine monohydrate with the water molecule removed. This form offers a slightly more concentrated version of creatine, with about 100% pure creatine by weight. Its primary appeal lies in providing more creatine in less volume.

One notable benefit of Creatine Anhydrous is that, due to its concentrated nature, you get more creatine per gram. While it might seem advantageous, the difference in actual performance or results compared to creatine monohydrate is still debated. Some users might also prefer it because it can be less gritty in texture.

10. Creatine Magnesium Chelate

Creatine Magnesium Chelate is a form of creatine bound to magnesium. This combination is believed to enhance creatine’s absorption in the body because magnesium plays a role in ATP metabolism. The theory is that by binding creatine to magnesium, it might improve its uptake and efficiency in the body.

While the benefits include potentially better absorption and efficiency, there isn’t extensive research to conclusively support these claims over other types of creatine. Like other specialized forms, it often comes with a higher price tag compared to the basic creatine monohydrate.

What are the benefits of Creatine?

Creatine offers a many benefits, especially for those who engage in high-intensity activities. Regular creatine supplementation can improve exercise performance, especially in short-duration, high-intensity activities. It can also assist in increasing muscle mass when combined with resistance training. Creatine provides an energy boost, aiding in replenishing ATP, which is vital for quick bursts of power and strength.

Beyond performance, creatine has other health implications. Some studies suggest that it might support brain health, improve glucose tolerance, and even have potential therapeutic applications for certain diseases like muscular dystrophies.

  • Improve exercise performance
  • Increasing muscle mass
  • Energy boost
  • Supports brain health
  • Improve glucose tolerance

What are the side effects of Creatine?

Like any supplement, creatine isn’t without its potential side effects. Commonly reported side effects of creatine include weight gain due to water retention, muscle cramps, stomach discomfort, and diarrhea. The weight gain is often temporary and related to the initial stages of supplementation. It’s crucial to drink plenty of water when taking creatine to minimize the risk of cramps and dehydration.

There are also concerns, often mentioned in the media, about potential kidney or liver damage. Most scientific evidence, though, suggests that creatine is safe when used responsibly by healthy individuals. Creatine side effects women who are pregant or breastfeeding, so it should be avoided unless a doctor approves it.

  • Weight gain (water retension)
  • Muscle cramps
  • Stomach discomfort
  • Diarrhea
  • Kidney or liver damage

Is Creatine dangerous?

Many people are concerned about the safety of creatine, especially with its popularity in the fitness world. Based on extensive research, for most people, creatine is not dangerous when taken at recommended doses. In fact, it’s one of the most researched supplements in sports nutrition, with hundreds of studies vouching for its safety.

So no, creatine is not dangerous. That said, it’s always recommended to follow dosing guidelines. Overconsumption or prolonged use without breaks might lead to side effects.

Is Creatine a Steroid?

No, creatine is not a steroid. This misconception might arise because both creatine and anabolic steroids are sometimes used by athletes to increase muscle size. However, they function very differently. Steroids are synthetic compounds that resemble the hormone testosterone, helping to increase muscle size at an unnatural rate.

Creatine, on the other hand, is a naturally occurring compound in our bodies and found in some foods. It supports cellular energy production, especially during short, intense activities. Its mechanism is entirely different from steroids, and it doesn’t influence hormones in the same way.

Is Creatine better than Casein?

Comparing creatine and casein is like comparing apples to oranges – both are beneficial but serve different purposes. Creatine is primarily known for enhancing short-term, high-intensity performance and aiding muscle growth. Its main role is to help produce more ATP, the primary energy molecule in cells, during intense bouts of activity.

Casein, on the other hand, is a slow-digesting protein found in milk. Its primary benefit is providing a sustained release of amino acids into the bloodstream, which can be particularly beneficial during periods of fasting, like overnight. For those looking to build muscle or prevent muscle breakdown, casein can be a valuable protein source. It doesn’t serve the same immediate energy-boosting purpose as creatine.

Is Creatine Safe?

The question of safety is paramount when considering any supplement. Based on current evidence, creatine is considered safe for most individuals when taken in recommended amounts. Its long history of use, both in scientific studies and by athletes, indicates that it doesn’t pose significant risks for healthy individuals.

As always, potential users should be aware of their health status. For example, those with kidney disorders or individuals taking certain medications should approach creatine with caution and always consult a healthcare professional before beginning supplementation. For the vast majority, with proper usage, creatine poses minimal risks and offers several benefits.

What is the difference between Creatine and Whey Protein?

Creatine and whey protein are both popular supplements in the fitness community, but they serve distinct purposes. Creatine is a compound that helps your muscles produce energy during high-intensity, short-duration exercises. It aids in the formation of ATP, the primary molecule your cells use for energy and all basic life functions. Think of it as a quick energy burst during activities like lifting weights or sprinting.

Whey protein, in contrast, is a high-quality protein derived from milk during the cheese-making process. It provides the body with essential amino acids, which are the building blocks for muscles. Consuming whey protein helps to promote muscle growth, repair tissue, and enhance muscle recovery after exercise. So while creatine boosts immediate energy production, whey protein focuses on muscle recovery and growth.

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Athletic Insight Research


The Athletic Insight Research team consists of a dedicated team of researchers, Doctors, Registered Dieticians, nationally certified nutritionists and personal trainers. Our team members hold prestigious accolades within their discipline(s) of expertise, as well as nationally recognized certifications. These include; National Academy of Sports Medicine Certified Personal Trainer (NASM-CPT), American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA-CPT), National Academy of Sports Medicine Certified Nutrition Coach (NASM-CNC), International Sports Sciences Association Nutritionist Certification.