Endorphins: Definition, Effects, and How to Get

Endorphins are neurotransmitters produced naturally by the central nervous system to help regulate pain and pleasure. Often referred to as the “feel good” chemicals, endorphins play an integral role in elevating mood, relieving stress, and enhancing overall wellbeing. This article will provide an in-depth look at what endorphins are, how they function, and simple ways to increase endorphin levels.

What Are Endorphins?

Endorphins are neurotransmitters synthesized in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and other parts of the central nervous system. They serve as the body’s natural pain relievers. Similar to opioid medications, endorphins bind to opioid receptors throughout the brain and spinal cord where they inhibit the transmission of pain signals.

In addition to blocking pain, endorphins also trigger feelings of euphoria, pleasure, and general happiness when they interact with the brain’s opiate receptors. The name “endorphin” is a combination of the term “endogenous” meaning produced internally within the body, and “morphine” which refers to their pain-relieving properties analogous to the drug. Overall, endorphins play an integral role in regulating pain perception, reducing stress and inflammation, enhancing mood, and promoting an overall sense of wellbeing.

What Do Endorphins Do?

When released in the brain, endorphins produce a euphoric, feel-good effect that can induce feelings of pleasure, positivity, and general happiness. They act as the body’s natural pain medication by binding to opiate receptors and blocking signals of pain from reaching the brain. In this way, endorphins provide natural pain relief and give us that “runner’s high” feeling of enjoyment following exercise or other activities.

In addition to mediating pain, endorphins also play an important role in regulating the body’s physiological response to stress. Endorphins help counteract the negative effects of chronic stress such as elevated cortisol levels. They also aid in reducing inflammation throughout the body that contributes to arthritis pain and other inflammatory diseases.

What Are the Types of Endorphins?

The main endorphins produced in the human body include Beta-endorphin, Alpha-endorphin, Gamma-endorphin, and Sigma-endorphin.

  • Beta-endorphin: The most abundant endorphin found in the central nervous system and brain. Beta-endorphin is released in response to pain, stress, exercise, excitement and strong emotions.
  • Alpha-endorphin: Also produced in the pituitary gland, alpha-endorphin has a high affinity for opiate receptors and provides strong analgesic effects.
  • Gamma-endorphin: Generated by immune cells and released when the immune system is triggered by illness or inflammation. It helps regulate immune system functioning.
  • Sigma-endorphin: Found predominantly in the gastrointestinal system and important for regulating digestion and gut motility.

Each type of endorphin plays a role in mediating pain, stress, neuroimmune interactions, and homeostatic functions in the specific regions of the body where it is synthesized and released.

How to Release Endorphins?

There are many lifestyle approaches and activities that can effectively stimulate the production and release of endorphins. Endorphin levels can be optimized through certain forms of exercise, stress relief practices, social bonding experiences, dietary factors, and more. Activities that activate the central nervous system and provide a positive challenge or enjoyment signal the brain to synthesize and discharge higher levels of endorphins. Some natural ways to safely increase circulating endorphins include swimming, dancing, eating, hiking, sex, massage and power walking.

  1. Swimming
  2. Dancing
  3. Eating
  4. Hiking
  5. Sex
  6. Massage
  7. Power Walking

1. Swimming

Swimming provides a low-impact form of cardiovascular exercise that engages all of the major muscle groups in the body. The combination of stretching, resistance from the water, rhythmic breathing patterns, and aerobic activity involved in swimming all help prompt the release of mood-elevating endorphins. Even just 20-30 minutes of moderate swimming can effectively increase endorphin levels according to research.

The mental relaxation and meditative quality swimming can also lower stress hormones like cortisol to aid endorphin release. Overall, incorporating swimming into your regular exercise routine is an excellent way to give your endorphin levels a boost.

2. Dancing

Dancing is a fun way to engage in physical activity while also releasing endorphins. The act of moving your whole body rhythmically to music signals your brain to produce more of those feel-good endorphins that induce a natural high. All forms of dance including high or low intensity styles have been shown to effectively increase endorphin release.

Dancing provides the aerobic exercise component needed to stimulate endorphin production, while also lowering stress through the relaxing, creative elements of moving freely to music. The social aspects of dancing with a partner or group can further aid endorphin release through feelings of bonding, intimacy, and belonging.

3. Eating

Eating certain foods that you enjoy can both satisfy hunger and engage the brain’s endorphin and dopamine-based reward systems. When we eat highly palatable foods like chocolate, spicy dishes, or other cravings, it provides pleasure and enjoyment that stimulates the release of endorphins and other feel-good chemicals.

Additionally, the process of satisfying physiological hunger signals itself promotes the production of endorphins in the hypothalamus. Eating in a relaxed, mindful way and savoring tasty flavors can further enhance the release of reward-associated neurochemicals like endorphins. In moderation, eating is an effective natural method to give your endorphin activity a healthy boost.

4. Hiking

Engaging in regular hiking combines the endorphin-releasing benefits of cardiovascular exercise with exposure to the calming effects of nature. The physical activity involved in walking uphill outdoors stimulates your pituitary gland to produce and release more endorphins. Being immersed among greenery, sunlight, and fresh air can also lower cortisol and help unwind both the mind and body.

The combination of aerobic exercise and surrounding yourself with the relaxing natural environment make hiking an excellent way to increase endogenous endorphin levels. Even short 20-30 minute hikes a few times per week can help boost endorphins.

5. Sex

Sexual activity including intercourse, masturbation, intimacy, and ultimately orgasm prompt the brain to synthesize and release higher levels of feel-good endorphins. Endorphins are released during arousal, and reach a peak at climax when endorphin levels can increase fivefold. In addition to producing euphoria, sex-related endorphins also strengthen social bonding and intimacy with a partner.

Through both the physical stimulation and emotional intimacy involved, sex provides a powerful means of triggering endorphin release. Having regular, meaningful sexual encounters can help keep endorphin activity elevated within healthy levels.

6. Massage

Receiving various forms of therapeutic massage has been shown to effectively increase endorphin levels. The pressure from techniques like deep tissue massage, trigger point therapy, and myofascial release stimulate the central nervous system to release more endorphins. Massage also enhances parasympathetic activity and increases blood flow while reducing muscle tension and inflammation – all of which contribute to elevated endorphin production.

The relaxation response elicited by massage therapies triggers several neurochemical pathways leading to increased endorphin synthesis and release. Regular massage can help sustain healthy endorphin system functioning.

7. Power walking

Aerobic exercises that raise your heart rate into its target zone and sustain it there also signal your brain to synthesize and release more mood-boosting endorphins. A brisk power walk where you pump your arms and maintain an intensity over which you can still talk but not sing is an effective endorphin booster.

Aim to walk at an intensity level that feels moderately challenging given your current fitness. Power walking just 30 minutes most days of the week helps promote consistent endorphin system activation. Be sure to stay well hydrated before, during, and after your walk.

Does Exercising Help Release Endorphins?

Yes, engaging in regular exercise is one of the most effective and proven ways to increase the production and release of endorphins. Any aerobic activities that raise your heart rate into its target training zone for 20-30 sustained minutes prompt your pituitary gland and hypothalamus to synthesize and discharge more endorphins.

Over time, consistency is key – exercising at moderate intensity most days of the week helps maintain higher baseline levels of circulating endorphins. This regular endorphin release can enhance mood, reduce pain, and optimize your overall sense of wellbeing.

What is the Best Exercise that Releases the Most Endorphins?

Of all exercise modalities studied, high intensity interval training (HIIT) workouts have been shown to release the highest levels of endorphins. HIIT involves alternating short bursts of intense anaerobic exercise with intervals of lower intensity recovery. These extreme fluctuations in effort maximize heart rate and metabolism to stimulate robust endorphin system activation.

Some examples of effective HIIT workouts include sprinting intervals, plyometrics, and Tabata-style training. However, even short 10-minute HIIT sessions a few times a week can significantly increase circulating endorphins.

How Long Should You Exercise to Release Endorphins?

Most experts recommend engaging in moderate to vigorous exercise for a minimum of 20-30 minutes at a time in order to maximize the release of endorphins. However, even shorter duration high intensity interval training can stimulate significant endorphin discharge.

The most important factor is exercising consistently at least 4-5 days per week in order promote routine activation of the endorphin response. Regular activity leads to greater long-term endorphin system upregulation and optimal functioning.

Can Diet Also Help Release Endorphins?

Yes, consuming a balanced, nutrient-dense diet provides the essential amino acids and building blocks your body needs to synthesize adequate levels of endorphins and other neurotransmitters. Complex carbohydrates, plant protein sources, antioxidants, omega-3s, vitamin B6, and probiotics have all been shown to support healthy endorphin production.

Following an anti-inflammatory diet like the Mediterranean diet with fresh, whole foods including vegetables, fruits, lean meats, nuts, seeds, beans, and healthy fats optimizes nutrition for normal endorphin activity.

What Type of Diet is Best to Release Endorphins?

The ideal endorphin-promoting diet emphasizes whole, minimally processed foods including plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, fiber-rich complex carbs from sources like oats and quinoa, plant and marine sources of protein, nuts, seeds, beans, antioxidant spices, and healthy fats from olive oil, avocados, and fish.

This balanced nutritional plan with anti-inflammatory properties provides essential precursors your neuroendocrine system requires to sustain healthy endorphin production and release.

Are There Available Supplements to Increase Endorphins?

Some supplements including omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, vitamin D, magnesium, curcumin, DL-phenylalanine, and probiotics may offer additional support for boosting low endorphin levels when combined with a healthy lifestyle. However, supplements should not serve as a replacement for natural endorphin-enhancing behaviors.

Consult a doctor before taking any new supplements, especially if you have underlying health conditions or take any prescription medications that could interact.

What Are the Benefits of Endorphins?

Some of the key benefits provided by endorphins include alleviating pain, reducing stress, improving mood, increasing motivation, regulating emotions, strengthen the immune system, decreasing inflammation and improving sleep quality.

  • Alleviating pain
  • Reducing stress
  • Elevating mood and inducing feelings of euphoria
  • Increasing motivation and enjoyment of activities
  • Regulating emotional states
  • Enhancing focus and concentration
  • Strengthening the immune system
  • Decreasing inflammation
  • Improving sleep quality and duration

What Are the Risks of Endorphins?

While endorphins provide many benefits, there are some potential risks associated with very high or chronically elevated endorphin levels including addiction to negative behaviors that release endorphins, withdrawal symptoms, increased sensitivity to pain, risky behaviors, lack of healthy coping skills and increased risk of getting hurt.

  • Addiction to behaviors that release endorphins
  • Withdrawal symptoms when high endorphin stimuli are suddenly stopped
  • Increased sensitivity to pain when endorphin levels crash
  • Mood instability from dramatic fluctuations in endorphin levels
  • Engaging in risky or dangerous activities to induce a euphoric endorphin “high”
  • Lack of healthy coping skills for everyday pains and stressors
  • Increased risk of stress fractures, overtraining injuries, chronic fatigue from excessive exercise

What Causes Endorphin Deficiency?

Some common causes of insufficient endorphin production or endorphin deficiency include chronic unmanaged stress, clinical depression or generalized anxiety disorder, autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia, overuse of opioid medications leading to tolerance, nutritional deficiencies from poor diet quality, very sedentary lifestyle without regular exercise, traumatic brain injury, pituitary tumors or dysfunction, and rare genetic conditions affecting neurotransmitter synthesis.

  • Chronic unmanaged stress
  • Clinical depression or generalized anxiety disorder
  • Autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia
  • Overuse of opioid medications leading to tolerance
  • Nutritional deficiencies from poor diet quality
  • Very sedentary lifestyle without regular exercise
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Pituitary tumors or dysfunction
  • Rare genetic conditions affecting neurotransmitter synthesis

What Happens if You Lack Endorphins?

Endorphin deficiency can manifest with symptoms like heightened sensitivity and reduced tolerance for physical or emotional pain, increased fatigue, lethargy, and low motivation, sadness, irritability, and mood instability, heightened anxiety and unease, cravings for endorphin-releasing behaviors like eating hyper-palatable foods, diminished ability to cope with stressors, and low libido and lack of enjoyment in life.

  • Heightened sensitivity and reduced tolerance for physical or emotional pain
  • Increased fatigue, lethargy, and low motivation
  • Sadness, irritability, and mood instability
  • Heightened anxiety and unease
  • Cravings for endorphin-releasing behaviors like eating hyper-palatable foods
  • Diminished ability to cope with stressors
  • Low libido and lack of enjoyment in life

Chronically low endorphin levels are also associated with some mental health disorders like depression and anxiety as well as chronic pain conditions like fibromyalgia.

What Does Too Much Endorphins Lead To?

While low endorphin levels can negatively impact mood and pain tolerance, having constantly elevated or overabundant endorphins can also lead to issues including addiction-like behaviors, dependence, withdrawals, mood instability, taking unnecessary risks, lack of healthy coping, and overtraining.

  • Addiction-like behaviors involving endorphin-releasing activities
  • Dependence on endorphin highs to feel pleasure or cope
  • Withdrawal symptoms when access to endorphin stimuli is removed
  • Mood instability as endorphin levels spike up and down
  • Taking inappropriate physical or emotional risks to induce euphoria
  • Lack of healthy coping mechanisms for daily pains or stress
  • Overtraining injuries, chronic fatigue from excessive exercise

Maintaining balanced endorphin system functioning is ideal for physical and mental health.

Is Serotonin an Endorphin?

No, serotonin and endorphins are two different neurotransmitters synthesized in the body. While they both play central roles in regulating mood, emotion, and promoting feelings of wellbeing, serotonin and endorphins have distinct mechanisms of action.

Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan, while endorphins are peptide chains composed of multiple amino acids. However, serotonin, endorphins, and dopamine all interact in complex neurochemical pathways that govern mood, pleasure, and the stress response.

What is the Difference Between Endorphins and Dopamine?

There are several key differences between endorphins and dopamine.

  • Endorphins are peptide neurotransmitters while dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter.
  • Endorphins bind mainly to opioid receptors while dopamine interacts with dopaminergic neurons.
  • Endorphins are more involved in regulating pain perception while dopamine governs pleasure, reward motivation, and focus.
  • Dopamine oversees more cognitive processes like memory formation, attention, and movement coordination.
  • Excess endorphins can lead to emotional instability and physical pain insensitivity. Excess dopamine more often manifests as addictions or compulsivity.

However, both endorphins and dopamine interact in the brain’s reward pathway. Maintaining balanced levels of each is optimal for both physical and mental health.

Athletic Insight

Athletic Insight Research


The Athletic Insight Research team consists of a dedicated team of researchers, Doctors, Registered Dieticians, nationally certified nutritionists and personal trainers. Our team members hold prestigious accolades within their discipline(s) of expertise, as well as nationally recognized certifications. These include; National Academy of Sports Medicine Certified Personal Trainer (NASM-CPT), American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA-CPT), National Academy of Sports Medicine Certified Nutrition Coach (NASM-CNC), International Sports Sciences Association Nutritionist Certification.